The Battle of Azio had marked the final crisis of the Roman Republic. Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Octavian defeated Mark Antony after years of civil war and was now ready to get my hands on Rome. The period following the Roman Republic is identified as Imperial Rome as the city government a series of successive emperors from different dynasties.
The first Roman emperor was Octavian Augustus that, along with Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero, are part of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, who ruled in Rome from 27 BC to 68 A.D.
With the new powers that were conferred by the Senate, including the title of "Augustus" in 27 BC, Octavian arranged for the administration of the Empire: stable currency and taxation standardized, created an administrative structure consisting of knights and military foresaw the Treasury benefits for the soldiers at the time of the leave. Divided into Senatorial provinces (controlled by proconsul appointed senators) and Imperial (ruled by imperial-related). Augustus also became a promoter of cultural events and he himself was inspired by great masters such as Horace and Virgil, who celebrated it in their works. The death of the Emperor Augustus was a blow to Rome, for he was one of the most beloved emperors of history, as he had managed to revive the city in economic policy-both in the artistic, favoring the creation of beautiful monuments and the promotion of literature. At his death, was succeeded by his stepson Tiberius (Emperor 14-37 AD), which brought forward the program of Augustus ensure wealth and prosperity to the city. After the death of two children, Drusus and Germanicus, Tiberius led a retreat at the villa in Capri and left power in the hands of the master Elio Sejanus. Following, the Emperor Tiberius discovered a plot that seemed to have hatched Sejanus against him and put him to death along with many of his friends. The persecution did not end, that the death of Tiberius, which occurred in 37 to Cape Miseno.
The successor was Tiberius Gaius, better known as Caligula, as he used to bring "caligae", the typical sandals of time. Caligula ruled from 37 to 41 AD and around him stood up several controversies, was also charged to maintain incestuous relationships with his sisters. In 41, Caligula fell victim to a conspiracy, who was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard commander Cassius Cherea.
After Caligula came to power his nephew Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus, better known as Claudio (41-54 AD). The emperor Claudius is remembered in history as weak and crazy, that the adjectives were also awarded by the great historian implied. Claudio reorganized the bureaucracy and put order into the citizenship and senatorial roles. In Italy he built a winter port at Ostia, creating warehouses to store grains and cereals from other parts of the empire. The empire of Claudius is also remembered for family events like the killing of his wife Messalina who betrayed him. It is believed that he was killed by a conspiracy organized by his second wife Agrippina who wanted to pick up his son in power. The death of Claudius paved the way for the son of Agrippina, the sixteen year old Lucius Domitius Enobarbus that adopted by Claudius had taken the name of Tiberius Claudius Nero, Domitian, known as Nero.
Nero (54-68 AD) is probably one of the most emblematic and most curious among the Roman emperors. Nero came to power very young and in the early years of the empire left the decision-making powers to his mother Agrippina and Seneca, his old mentor. During his reign there was a series of riots and rebellions throughout the Empire: in Britannia, Armenia, Parthia and Judea. Nero's inability to manage the rebellions that did it was also abandoned by the Imperial Guard. Nero committed suicide, and year 69 (known as the Year of the Four Emperors) was a year of civil war, which saw just one year in the succession of four emperors. At the end of the year, Vespasian was able to consolidate his power as emperor of Rome.
With Nero's death and the arrival of Vespasian was the beginning of the Flavian Dynasty, a family of emperors from the middle class who will rule in Rome from 69 to 96 AD
The first emperor of the Flavian dynasty was Vespasian (69-79), a Roman general who had achieved great successes in the war but that was not appreciated by the Roman Senate, unlike its predecessors. Vespasian was able to raise Rome by the financial problems created by the excesses of Nero and the civil wars. Vespasian was the first commissioner of the Roman Colosseum and built a forum whose center was the Temple of Peace. Vespasian died June 23, 79 and his place was taken by his son Titus (79-81 AD), who had followed his father in military enterprises. Tito's reign was marked by massive devastation, including the plague in Rome which led to the eruption of Vesuvius destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum. He did manage to put order in Rome but died young, just 41 years, perhaps by his brother Domitian, eager to rise to power. Under the rule of Domitian (81-96 AD), the last emperor of the Flavian dynasty, was completed the construction of the coliseum. His policy is affected by internal conflicts with the Senate. At the end of his reign began the persecution of Christians in the following year Domitian died, the victim of a conspiracy.
The end of the Flavian dynasty marks the beginning of the period of the Antonine Dynasty (96-192 AD), also known as the Emperors Adopted as the succession to the throne was not established by family, but through the adoption by the emperor in charge of its successor.
Nerva (96-98 AD) was the first emperor of the dynasty of the Antonines and was highly respected as a senator. During his reign, a brief but significant, brought a big change: the "principle is adopted. " Nerva adopted Trajan as his successor. During the reign of Trajan (98-117), Rome reached its greatest extent in terms of territorial conquests by conquering Armenia, Mesopotamia and Assyria. Trajan also devoted himself to the construction of major public works such as the Thermae of Traiano. It was prepared a master plan for Rome, were raised and the hole in the market of Trajan, the works were designed by Apollodorus of Damascus. They were also built a triumphal arch, the basilica Ulpia and Trajan's column, which are represented on the events of the conquest of Dacia.
To Trajan succeeded Hadrian (117-138) and in this period the Roman Empire experienced a moment of peace. He became a promoter of various political and cultural initiatives, traveled widely in the territories conquered by the Empire and reformed the civil service. Remember the great Mausoleum of Hadrian, best know as Sant'Angelo Castle. Over the years of his reign there was a time of peace, disturbed only by the second Jewish revolt (132-135), and the emperor was responsible for the fortification of the northern borders, with the construction of Hadrian's Wall in Britain and the consolidation of the border Germanic. Antoninus Pius (138-161), founder of the dynasty of the Antonines, continued the peaceful policy of his predecessor, was a wise administrator and reconfirms the Senate's prerogatives past, earning the title of Pius. At his death he was succeeded by Marcus Aurelius (161-180) and Lucius Verus, who died in 169. The first signs of crisis that swept the Roman Empire in the third century became more feel with the succession to the throne, Commodus (180-192). With the arrival of Commodus, son of Marcus Aurelius things did not improve and was assassinated by opponents.